Thư viện xin giới thiệu đến bạn đọc các bài viết liên quan đến chủ đề “Agriculture and rural development in Vietnam” nằm trong bộ sưu tập New research on development issues in Vietnam được xuất bản vào tháng 5, tháng 6 năm 2019.

1. Does Agricultural Commercialization Affect Food Security: The Case of Crop-Producing Households in the Regions of Post-Reform Vietnam?/Vincent Linderhof, Valerie Janssen and Thom Achterbosch. Sustainability, 2019.

Free full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/5/1263/pdf

Abstract: Agricultural commercialization remains a widely pursued approach in development projects to improve food security in low-income countries, although there is no clear scientific evidence for it. This study examines the impact of agricultural commercialization on the food security status of crop-producing households in the regions of Vietnam in the 1990s. We used the food system framework including output and input markets. We explore three indicators of commercialization: Cash crop production share (CCPS), crop output market participation share (COMPS), and crop input market participation share (CIMPS) based on fertilizer use. For food security, we looked at caloric intake and dietary diversity (Food Variety Score). We use a balanced panel data sample from the Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS) of 1992/93 and 1997/98. We apply four specifications for all combinations of commercialization indicators and food security indicators for seven regions: OLS 1992/93, OLS 1997/98, pooled sample, and difference estimator. The results show that the effect of commercialization on food security is widely heterogeneous. It depends upon the commercialization indicator and the region in Vietnam. In general, there is no clear evidence for the direction of commercialization on either caloric intake or dietary diversity; however, it is clear that the impacts are generally more positive for southern regions than for northern regions of Vietnam

2. Factors affecting the adoption of climate-smart aquaculture (CSAq) in North Central Coast of Vietnam: Technical Report/ Cao Le Quyen, Trinh Quang Tu and Phan Phuong Thanh. Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Vietnam Institute of Fisheries Economics and Planning; CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, 2019.

Free full text https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/100122

Abstract: Under the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), the Vietnam Institute of Fisheries Economics and Planning (VIFEP), WorldFish, and Thanh Hoa Agricultural Extension Centre had successfully implemented the pilot project “Enhancing community resilience to climate change by promoting climate smart aquaculture practices along the coastal areas of the North Central of Vietnam” (ECO-SAMP). From 2015-2017, the project was implemented by introducing sanility domesticated tilapia in improved extensive system of tiger shrimp in Hoang Phong commune, Thanh Hoa province. This technical report documents the follow-up activities that has been carried out by VIFEP in 2018 to find the out key factors influencing the adoption of climate-smart aquaculture (CSAq) in North Central Coast of Vietnam.

3. Access to Rural Credit Markets in Developing Countries, the Case of Vietnam: A Literature Review/Ta Nhat Linh, Hoang Thanh Long, Le Van Chi, Le Thanh Tam and Philippe Lebailly. sustainability, 2019.

Free fulltext: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/5/1468/pdf

Abstract: Agricultural sectors play an important role in the process of economic development of a country, especially in developing ones. Vietnam is known as an emerging market, which depends directly on agriculture-related activities for their livelihood, in which the issue of rural credit access still remains a confounding problem. The paper focuses on the characteristics of rural credit markets, the determinants of farmer access to the markets, the socio-economic impacts of credit access in Vietnam and briefly comparing with those of some developing countries. This question is addressed by reviewing existing literature and empirical evidence, followed by a comprehensive case study in Vietnam. Comprehensive literature review with secondary data collection and key informant interviews are methods that are applied in this research. The results of this analysis indicate the features of Vietnam markets as participated constraints, government intervention, and segmentation. Other results reveal the significant determinants of credit accessibility. Impacts of credit access on output production, household income, and poverty reduction are highlighted in this paper. Some managerial implications are recommended for households through participation in lending networks; for financial institutions relating to expand target clients as well as capital allocation; and, for policy-makers via ensuring market competitiveness and sustainable development in the long run.

4. The Application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Agriculture: Present Status, Opportunities, and Challenges in Vietnam/Shozo Sakata. in: New Trends and Challenges for Agriculture in the Mekong Region: From Food Security to Development of Agri-Businesses, Bangkok Research Center, JETRO Bangkok/IDE-JETRO BRC Research Report, 2019.

Free full text: https://www.ide.go.jp/library/English/Publish/Download/Brc/pdf/25_06.pdf

Abstract: The application of information and communication technologies (ICT) is becoming a global trend in the agricultural sector. ICT provides the basis of “precision agriculture,” which meets retailers’ and consumers’ growing demand for food safety. Since 2010, the Vietnamese government has implemented various policies and programs to promote “high-tech” agriculture. However, the application of ICT in agriculture is still in its early stages, being practiced only in a limited way. This paper reviews the literature on ICT application in agricultural practice in both developed and developing countries, with the goal of examining the background of ICT application, what type of ICT is being used, and its effects. This paper then discusses the potential for and challenges to the adoption of ICT in the Vietnamese agricultural sector.

5. Impacts of extreme climate events on technical efficiency in Vietnamese agriculture/Yoro Diallo, Sébastien Marchand and Etienne Espagne. CERDI Études et Documents n° 12, 2019.

Free full text https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02080285/document

Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine farm household-level impacts of weather extreme events on Vietnamese rice technical efficiency. Vietnam is considered among the most vulnerable countries to climate change, and the Vietnamese economy is highly dependent on rice production that is strongly affected by climate change. A stochastic frontier analysis is applied with census panel data and weather data from 2010 to 2014 to estimate these impacts while controlling for both adaptation strategy and household characteristics. Also, this study combines these estimated marginal effects with future climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5) to project the potential impact of hot temperatures in 2050 on rice technical efficiency. We find that weather shocks measured by the occurrence of floods, typhoons and droughts negatively affect technical efficiency. Also, additional days with a temperature above 31°C dampen technical efficiency and the negative effect is increasing with temperature. For instance, a one day increase in the bin [33°C-34°C] ([35°C and more]) lessen technical efficiency between 6.84 (2.82) and 8.05 (3.42) percentage points during the dry (wet) season.

6. The Intertemporal Evolution of Agriculture and Labor over a Rapid Structural Transformation: Lessons from Vietnam [First draft]/Yanyan Liu, Christopher B. Barrett, Trinh Pham and William Violette, 2019.

Free fulltext:  https://farmlabor.ucdavis.edu/sites/g/files/dgvnsk5936/files/inline-files/Liu%2520et%2520al%2520Vietnam%252014%2520Mar%25202019.pdf

Abstract: We combine nationally representative household and labor force survey data from 1992 to 2016 to provide a detailed description of rural labor market evolution and how it relates to the structural transformation of rural Vietnam, including the agricultural sector. Our study adds to the emerging literature on structural transformation in low-income countries using micro-level data and helps to answer several policy-related questions. We find limited employment creation potential of agriculture, especially for youth. Real wage convergence across sectors and rural-urban regions has gone hand-in-hand with increased diversification of the rural economy into the non-farm sector nationwide and rapid advances in educational attainment in all sectors’ and regions’ workforce. Minimum wage laws seem to have played no significant role in increasing agricultural wages. This enhanced integration also manifests in steady attenuation of the longstanding inverse farm size-yield relationship. Farming has remained securely household-based and the farmland distribution has remained largely unchanged. Small farm sizes have not obstructed mechanization nor the uptake of labor-saving pesticides, consistent with factor substitution induced by rising real wage rates. Rice yields increased rapidly in the earlier years, but more slowly over the past decade or so. As rural households rely more heavily on the labor market, human capital accumulation (rather than land endowments) have become the key driver of improvements in rural household well-being. 

7. Investment in Agriculture in Recent Times: The Case of Vietnam/ Hoang Xuan Diem and Do Thi Thu Thuy. in: New Trends and Challenges for Agriculture in the Mekong Region: From Food Security to Development of Agri-Businesses, Bangkok Research Center, JETRO Bangkok/IDE-JETRO BRC Research Report, 2019.

Free full text https://www.ide.go.jp/library/English/Publish/Download/Brc/pdf/25_05.pdf

Abstract: This paper discusses about the recent trends of investment in agriculture of Vietnam, its opportunities and challenges and some implications to further attract investment in this sector. Numerous incentives and support programs have been granted by the national and local authorities over the last decade. New trends are emerging, such as changes in the structure and scale of production, increasing investment from large domestic firms, and more application of modern techniques and smart farming. However, total and FDI investment in agriculture remain limited. In the future, this sector faces the obstacles of declining land and labor, and climate change, while land access and poor infrastructure are unsolved. However, there are still opportunities as the sector receives priority support from the Government, and the growing middle-class and the deeper economic integration will create higher demand. More effort should be paid to harmonize and systematize the list of incentives to investors; to remove obstacles to land access; and to design more support for the distribution and marketing of agricultural products.

8. Vulnerability of the agricultural sector to climate change: The development of a pan-tropical Climate Risk Vulnerability Assessment to inform sub-national decision making/Louis Parker, Clement Bourgoin, Armando Martinez-Valle and Peter Läderach. PLOS ONE, 2019, volume 14, number 3, p. e0213641.

Free full text: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213641 

Abstract: As climate change continues to exert increasing pressure upon the livelihoods and agricultural sector of many developing and developed nations, a need exists to understand and prioritise at the sub national scale which areas and communities are most vulnerable. The purpose of this study is to develop a robust, rigorous and replicable methodology that is flexible to data limitations and spatially prioritizes the vulnerability of agriculture and rural livelihoods to climate change. We have applied the methodology in Vietnam, Uganda and Nicaragua, three contrasting developing countries that are particularly threatened by climate change. We conceptualize vulnerability to climate change following the widely adopted combination of sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity. We used Ecocrop and Maxent ecological models under a high emission climate scenario to assess the sensitivity of the main food security and cash crops to climate change. Using a participatory approach, we identified exposure to natural hazards and the main indicators of adaptive capacity, which were modelled and analysed using geographic information systems. We finally combined the components of vulnerability using equal-weighting to produce a crop specific vulnerability index and a final accumulative score. We have mapped the hotspots of climate change vulnerability and identified the underlying driving indicators. For example, in Vietnam we found the Mekong delta to be one of the vulnerable regions due to a decline in the climatic suitability of rice and maize, combined with high exposure to flooding, sea level rise and drought. However, the region is marked by a relatively high adaptive capacity due to developed infrastructure and comparatively high levels of education. The approach and information derived from the study informs public climate change policies and actions, as vulnerability assessments are the bases of any National Adaptation Plans (NAP), National Determined Contributions (NDC) and for accessing climate finance.

9. Evaluating the Current Ecological Adaptability and Future Trends of Agricultural Land Use Systems for Spatial Orientation of Land Use Planning in Quoc Oai District, Hanoi City/Thu Do Thi Tai, Huan Nguyen Cao, Tuan Tran Van, Hung Vu Khac and Cuong Doan Quang. FIG Working Week 2019 Geospatial information for a smarter life and environmental resilience, Hanoi, Vietnam, April 22–26, 2019, 2019.

Free full text: http://www.fig.net/resources/proceedings/fig_proceedings/fig2019/papers/ts05h/TS05H_do_nguyen_et_al_10069.pdf

Abstract: Land evaluation in general and the effectiveness of ecological adaptability in particular are important parts of the process of land use planning, especially in agricultural land use. However, in Viet Nam, most research only focus on building land unit maps for land evaluation, which have not fully considered the interdependence of components in the assessment process. Thus, the effectiveness of evaluating ecological adaptability in land use system will allow to identify the interdependence of factors in the system (A land use system consists of a specified land utilization type practised on a given land unit, together with its associated inputs and outputs, FAO, 1984). Furthermore, Quoc Oai district is oriented to develop ecological village and hightech agriculture in the construction master plan of Hanoi city. Quoc Oai district has a large area of agricultural land with 9637.91hectares, accounted for 63.77% of total area of natural land of  district. The study identified 46 agricultural land use systems (LUS) which are based on 34 land units (LU) and 7 major land use types (LUT) in the Quoc Oai district. The research results evaluate the effectiveness of ecological adaptability in present and future. This research identified land use systems in the district’s agricultural production including: wet rice, ricefish, vegetables, perennial fruit trees, tea, production forest, protection forest. Perennial trees and vegetables are land use systems which have wide ecological adaptability area and the best effectiveness. LUS evaluation process can be applied to other districts which have an agricultural area in Hanoi.

10. Land Consolidation as Technical Change: Impacts On-farm and Off-farm in Rural Vietnam/Huy Quynh Nguyen. 2019 Conference (63rd) Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society (AARES) No 285078, February 12-15, 2019, Melbourne, Australia, 2019.

Free full text: https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/agsaare19/285078.htm

Abstract: This paper studies whether land consolidation – reduction of land fragmentation – promotes or hinders the Vietnamese government’s policy objectives of encouraging agricultural mechanization and stimulation of the off-farm rural economy. It does this by viewing land consolidation as a form of technical change, making it possible to apply the insights developed in the economic literature on technical change. This treatment reveals that the impacts of land consolidation depend partly on its factor bias and partly on the degree to which labor is substitutable in production for other factors. At a theoretical level, if a technical change is factor neutral, it will reduce off-farm labor supply and slow rural structural transformation away from agriculture; if it is labor-augmenting and the elasticity of substitution between factors is low enough, the opposite effects are predicted. The paper studies these issues empirically for rice production in Vietnam, focusing on the impact that consolidation of rice land has on rice production, machinery use, and labor allocation. The findings confirm that land consolidation raises both farm productivity and farm income and stimulates increased machinery use. It also reduces farm labor supply, lowers labor intensity in farming, and thereby releases more farm labor to off-farm development, consistent with government policy objectives. Based on these findings, the paper concludes that land consolidation should be encouraged through development of land ownership rights and the promotion of land rental markets.

11. The Benefits of Improving Animal Welfare from the Perspective of Livestock Stakeholders across Asia/M. Sinclair, C. Fryer and C. J. C. Phillips. Animals (Basel), 2019, volume 9, number 4.

Free full text https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/4/123

Abstract: In this study, 17 focus group meetings were held with livestock industry leaders in geographically dispersed areas of China, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, India and Bangladesh, regarding animal welfare issues, potential solutions and attitudes. Livestock leaders were asked 'what do you see as the benefits to improving animal welfare' and later to discuss the potential benefits and rank them according to their associated importance. While differences existed by country, the most important perceived benefit area across all countries was financial in nature, primarily focussed on the potential to increase the productive output of the animals and to improve meat and product quality. However, doubt existed around the ability to increase profit against the cost of improving animal welfare, particularly in China. Human health benefits and the tie to human welfare and community livelihood were considered most important in India and Bangladesh, and animal-focussed benefits were not significant in any countries, except India and, to a lesser extent, Bangladesh. Thus, improving animal welfare for the sake of the animals is unlikely to be a compelling argument. The results presented here can be used to create meaningful mutual ground between those that advocate improvement of animal welfare and the stakeholders that have the ability to implement it, i.e., the livestock industry.

12. Characterizing Antimicrobial Use in the Livestock Sector in Three South East Asian Countries (Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam)/Lucy Coyne, Riana Arief, Carolyn Benigno, Vo Ngan Giang, Luu Quynh Huong and others. Antibiotics (Basel), 2019, volume 8, number 1.

Free full text https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466601/

Abstract: A framework was developed to characterize the antimicrobial use/antimicrobial resistance complex in livestock systems in Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand. Farm profitability, disease prevention, and mortality rate reduction were identified as drivers toward antimicrobial use in livestock systems. It revealed that antimicrobial use was high in all sectors studied, and that routine preventative use was of particular importance to broiler production systems. Misleading feed labeling was identified as a hurdle to the collection of accurate antimicrobial use data, with farmers being unaware of the antimicrobials contained in some commercial feed. Economic analysis found that the cost of antimicrobials was low relative to other farm inputs, and that farm profitability was precariously balanced. High disease and poor prices were identified as potential drivers toward economic loss. The research indicates that antimicrobial use in small-scale poultry production systems improves feed conversion ratios and overall productivity. However, data were limited to quantify adequately these potential gains and their impacts on the food supply. During the study, all countries embraced and implemented policies on better management of antimicrobial use in livestock and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance. Future policies need to consider farm-level economics and livestock food supply issues when developing further antimicrobial use interventions in the region.

13. Rent Seeking for Export Licenses: Application to the Vietnam Rice Market/Duc Vo Tan Vu and Michael McAleer. Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) Erasmus University Rotterdam, Econometric Institute Research Paper No EI2019-09, 2019.

Free full text https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/emseureir/115607.htm

Abstract: The paper develops a model to examine rent seeking in innovation and export licenses, with an application to Vietnam rice exports. Firms can lobby for export restrictions or for free trade. Innovation is introduced as a cost-reducing technology. The analysis focuses on the innovation incentives of the firm lobbying for export restrictions, and the determinants of lobbying incentives. The analysis shows that firms lobbying for export restrictions may have lower incentives to adopt technological innovations under export restrictions than under free trade. The findings can help to identify economic inefficiency when the political elites use export restrictions to seek rents.  

14. Technical Efficiency of Rice Farming in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta: A Stochastic Frontier Approach/Thanh Tam Ho and Koji Shimada, 2019.

Free full text https://www.researchgate.net 

Abstract: The study aims to empirically investigate the technical efficiency of rice farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Observational data were obtained from the in-depth interviews with 352 rice farm households in three provinces of the Mekong Delta. The results from the stochastic frontier analysis reported that the overall mean technical efficiency of rice farming is 77% which implies that, on average, farm households have the potential to increase their rice production by 23% given the same level of inputs and technology. In addition, the estimated return-to-scale computed as the sum of coefficients from the Cobb- Douglass production frontier model is 0.3801 implying that rice farms in the Mekong delta are operating at decreasing returns to scale. Furthermore, the findings revealed that performance of adaptation response, agricultural extension services, the area of farm, and geographical location at both provincial level and micro-level (e.g. access to water source) are key influencing factors of rice farmingʼs inefficiency in the Mekong Delta.

15. Regional Policy Forum: Opportunities for a Climate-Smart Food System in Vietnam/Baruah S. the Netherlands: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change CCAFS Workshop Report. Wageningen, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), 2019.

Free full text https://hdl.handle.net/10568/101136

Abstract: The International Potato Center (CIP) and the Vietnam Academy of Agriculture Sciences (VAAS) in collaboration with Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) organized a Regional Policy Forum on “Opportunities for climate-smart food-system in Vietnam” on 10 Apr 2019 at Pullman Hanoi Hotel, 40 Cat Linh, Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 78 participants from the government, policy institutes, international organizations, academia and the civil society participated. Officials from Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Economics (IPSARD), Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Root Crop Research and Development Center (RCRDC), Vietnam Institute of Fisheries Economics and Planning (VIFEP)-MARD, International Cooperation Department (ICD), Institute for Agricultural Environment (IAE), Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), along with several other International and National organizations working on the above topic were present in this program.

16. Transformation and sources of growth in Southeast Asian agriculture/Pratap S. Birthal, Pramod Kumar Joshi, Devesh Roy and Ghanshyam Pandey. IFPRI discussion paper, 2019.

Free full text:

https://www.ifpri.org/publication/transformation-and-sources-growth-southeast-asian-agriculture

Abstract: Over the past few decades, the agricultural sector of Southeast Asia has experienced robust growth and undergone a structural transformation albeit differentially across the countries in the region. The main aims of this paper are to understand the process of transformation and sources of growth in agriculture in the broader context of economy-wide changes in domestic and international markets, and to suggest technological, institutional and policy measures for faster, efficient and sustainable growth. Our findings show faster growth in agriculture in comparatively low-income countries, with technological change, area expansion and diversification being the main drivers. On the other hand, agricultural growth in high-income countries has been relatively slow, and driven by price increases, mainly of the export-oriented commercial crops, such as oil-palm, rubber and coconut; and also, by area expansion. In view of the fixed supply of land and high volatility in global food prices, area and price driven growth is unlikely to sustain in the long-run. For efficient, sustainable and inclusive growth, the recourse has to be with exploiting potential of (i) existing and frontier technologies, by investing more in agricultural research and extension systems, and (ii) diversification of production portfolio towards higher-value food commodities by strengthening institutions that link farmers to remunerative markets; and investing in post-harvest infrastructure for food processing. 

17. Advancing smallholders’ sustainable livelihood through linkages among stakeholders in the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) value chain: the case of Dak Lak Province, Vietnam/A. X. Hoa, K. Techato, L. K. Dong, V. T. Vuong and J. Sopin, 2019.

Free full text http://aloki.hu/pdf/1702_51935217.pdf

Abstract: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a versatile crop that plays a vital role in sustaining smallholders’ livelihoods, and in increasing farmers’ income. This research assessed the cassava value chain in Dak Lak province, Vietnam. It demonstrated the need for enhanced efficiency in the production of cassava thus enhancing the cassava value chain. Value chain analysis was conducted through a questionnaire-based survey of 300 household farmers, in-depth interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions in seven communes in three districts. The aim was to explore how to improve and develop the value chain, increase stakeholders’ incomes and particularly, to ensure sustainable household livelihoods. The findings relating to the sharing of value added among the stakeholders showed that farmers create the highest value added but that intermediaries derive the most profit. In addition, relationships exist amongst different stakeholder ranging from input providers to the final users which are overwhelmingly starch and ethanol factories. There is a local linkage between input suppliers and farmers, both spot-market and persistent relationships which exist between farmers and intermediaries. Furthermore, the distribution of both gross and net profits overwhelmingly favors the traders and processors. However, intermediaries play an important role and the farmers would not secure full benefits without their support.

18. Impacts of extreme events on technical efficiency in Vietnamese agriculture/Yoro Diallo, Sébastien Marchand and Etienne Espagne. CIRED Working Papers, 2019.

Free full text https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/halciredw/halshs-02080285.htm.

Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine farm household-level impacts of weather extreme events on Vietnamese rice technical efficiency. Vietnam is considered among the most vulnerable countries to climate change, and the Vietnamese economy is highly dependent on rice production that is strongly affected by climate change. A stochastic frontier analysis is applied with census panel data and weather data from 2010 to 2014 to estimate these impacts while controlling for both adaptation strategy and household characteristics. Also, this study combines these estimated marginal effects with future climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5) to project the potential impact of hot temperatures in 2050 on rice technical efficiency. We find that weather shocks measured by the occurrence of floods, typhoons and droughts negatively affect technical efficiency. Also, additional days with a temperature above 31°C dampen technical efficiency and the negative effect is increasing with temperature. For instance, a one day increase in the bin [33°C-34°C] ([35°C and more]) lessen technical efficiency between 6.84 (2.82) and 8.05 (3.42) percentage points during the dry (wet) season.

19. Improving vegetable farming systems and marketing for small-scale producers in Bac Ha district, Lao Cai province/Nguyen Huu Nhuan, Nguyen Thi Thu Huyen, Nguyen Thi Duong Nga, Pham Van Hung, Pham Kieu My and others. Vietnam J. Agri. Sci., 219.

Free full text https://www.researchgate.net/

Abstract: Vegetable production has contributed to improving the livelihoods of many farmers in Lao Cai province as well as in the Northwest region of Vietnam. However, there are both technical and marketing issues constraining the development of efficient vegetable farming systems in the province. This study aimed to understand the opportunities and challenges to the development of the vegetable sector in Bac Ha district. The study conducted interviews with 105 vegetable producers of different vegetable farming systems, organized four focus group discussions with members of two vegetable co-operatives, and conducted in-depth interviews with the leaders of three vegetable production and marketing co-operatives and 5 vegetable traders. The findings indicate opportunities for vegetable production including increasing demand for vegetables at wet-markets, and the potential for the development of high quality vegetable production by utilizing local favorable natural conditions for off-season vegetables and high in nutrient indigenous vegetables. Some of the challenges to local vegetable production and marketing identified by the study were the frequent occurrence of extreme weather events, outbreaks of pests and diseases, and a poor marketing system. Recommendations have been made on strengthening both the technical and marketing capacities for local vegetable producers and moving value-chains from supplying bulk-products for local wet-markets to producing products with assured attributes demanded by the larger regional market. The study also highlights the need for future research interventions with a focus on improving the value chains of vegetable production in Bac Ha district with the goal of achieving sustainable livelihoods for the local farmers and environmental sustainability. 

20. Farming efficiency, cropland rental market and welfare effect: Evidence from panel data for rural Central Vietnam/Trung Thanh Nguyen, Viet Tuan Tran, Thanh-Tung Nguyen and Ulrike Grote. April 4-5 European Association of Agricultural Economists 165th Seminar, 2019, Berlin, 2019.

Free full text https://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/eaa165/288441.html

Abstract: Using panel data of more than 1,000 rural households from three rural provinces in Vietnam, we find that farming efficiency is a driver of cropland rental market development that enhances land use efficiency and results in an overall income gain for market participants. Our findings highlight the importance of cropland rental markets in facilitating economic transformation in rural areas of rapidly growing economies, but also indicate the need to take care of the poor to ensure that they are not left behind.

21. The Effects of Climate Smart Agriculture and Climate Change Adaptation on the Technical Efficiency of Rice Farming—An Empirical Study in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam/Thanh Tam Ho and Koji Shimada. Agriculture MDPI, 2019, volume 9, number 5.

Free full text https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jagris/v9y2019i5p99-d228263.html

Abstract: This study employed the propensity score matching approach to empirically assess the effects of climate smart agriculture participation and climate change adaptation response on the technical efficiency of rice production. Observational data were collected from in-depth interviews with 352 rice farm households in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The findings indicate that 71% of local farmers adapted their rice farming to climate change related to salinity intrusion and drought, while 29% of farmers did not. Additionally, only twenty-two rice farmers were typically chosen as participants in the climate smart agriculture pilot program by local government and institutions. The choices for adaptation response and climate smart agriculture participation are significantly influenced by agricultural extension services, belief in climate change, the area of farming land, as well as geographical locations (e.g., province and access to water sources). The results also reveal that climate change adaptation response, including climate smart agriculture participation, played a crucial role in improving technical efficiency of rice production by 13%–14% compared to no adaptation response. Regarding the individual effect of climate smart agriculture participation, participants could achieve higher technical efficiency by 5%–8% compared to non-participants.

22. Agricultural and food systems in the Mekong region: Drivers of transformation and pathways of change/RM Friend, S Thankappan, B Doherty, N Aung, AL Beringer and others. Emerald Open Research, 2019, volume 1, number 12.

Free full text https://emeraldopenresearch.com/articles/1-12/v1

Abstract: Agricultural and food systems in the Mekong Region are undergoing transformations because of increasing engagement in international trade, alongside economic growth, dietary change and urbanisation. Food systems approaches are often used to understand these kinds of transformation processes, with particular strengths in linking social, economic and environmental dimensions of food at multiple scales. We argue that while the food systems approach strives to provide a comprehensive understanding of food production, consumption and environmental drivers, it is less well equipped to shed light on the role of actors, knowledge and power in transformation processes and on the divergent impacts and outcomes of these processes for different actors. We suggest that an approach that uses food systems as heuristics but complements it with attention to actors, knowledge and power improves our understanding of transformations such as those underway in the Mekong Region. The key transformations in the region include the emergence of regional food markets and vertically integrated supply chains that control increasing share of the market, increase in contract farming particularly in the peripheries of the region, replacement of crops cultivated for human consumption with corn grown for animal feed. These transformations are increasingly marginalising small-scale farmers, while at the same time, many other farmers increasingly pursue non-agricultural livelihoods. Food consumption is also changing, with integrated supply chains controlling substantial part of the mass market. Our analysis highlights that theoretical innovations grounded in political economy, agrarian change, development studies and rural livelihoods can help to increase theoretical depth of inquiries to accommodate the increasingly global dimensions of food. As a result, we map out a future research agenda to unpack the dynamic food system interactions and to unveil the social, economic and environmental impacts of these rapid transformations. We identify policy and managerial implications coupled with sustainable pathways for change.

23. Determinants of Smallholders’ Market Preferences: The Case of Sustainable Certified Coffee Farmers in Vietnam/Nguyen Hung Anh and Wolfgang Bokelmann. Sustainability, 2019.

Free full text:  https://res.mdpi.com/sustainability/sustainability-11-02897/article_deploy/sustainability-11-02897.pdf

Abstract: This study attempts to analyze the market preference of coffee farmers in Vietnam. Using the transaction cost approach, a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model was developed based on the sales volume in different markets, transaction cost attributes, socioeconomic factors, and behavioral aspects of sustainable certified coffee farmers. Factors that significantly influence farmers’ market preference include several transaction cost attributes (price uncertainty, market competition, transportation cost, speed of payment, and sale volume agreement) and characteristics of coffee farmers (age, ethnic, farming experience, location, and certificate ownership). Repeated economic transaction embedded in the social relationship indicates the largest sales volume of coffee farmers to the market of buying agents and the existence of local traders. There is a belief that formal institution brings better market access for coffee farmers, but main issues are regarding opportunistic behavior, imperfect market knowledge, traditional farming habits, and contract noncompliance, which have resulted in a lower preference for the market of processors/exporters.

24. Soil erosion and overland flow from Acacia plantation forest in headwater catchment of Vietnam/B X Dung, P Q Trang, N T M Linh, D T Hoa and T Gomi. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2019.

Free full text https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/266/1/012012/pdf

Abstract: To assess soil losses and overland flow in Acacia plantations of different ages, five plots (10m2 /plot) was set up at different vegetation cover conditions (bare land, 4-month-old Acacia trees, 1-year-old Acacia trees, 2-year-old Acacia trees and 4-year-old Acacia trees) in Truong Son headwater, Hoa Binh, Vietnam. Soil erosion and overland flow was monitored over 75 storm events from September 2017 to October 2018. The main findings included: (1) Overland flow coefficient was highest at bare land (13.3 %), followed by 4month-old acacia (3.0 %), lower in Acacia forest at age 1 (1.5 %) and age 2 (1.4 %) and the lowest at 4-year-old Acacia (0.6 %); (2) The highest amount of soil loss was found in bare land (114.35 ton/ha/year) and decreased over ages of Acacia such as 30.33 ton/ha/year at 4- month-old Acacia, 13.90 ton/ha/year at 1-year-old Acacia, 13.22 ton/ha/year at 2-year-old Acacia and 3.94 ton/ha/6 month at 4-year-old Acacia; (3) Soil erosion and overland flow tended to be decreased due to increasing of Acacia ages with statistic significant difference (p-value < 0.01); (4) Soil erosion and overland flow in this study was higher than once of other previous studies. This suggests that more concern and applying suitable management for reducing the negative impact of Acacia plantation forest in headwater of Vietnam is necessary.

25. An investment plan for low-emission rice production in the Mekong River Delta region in support of Vietnam's Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement/Tran Van The, Mai Van Trinh, Nguyen Thi Dieu Trinh, Le Hoang Anh, Meryl Breton Richards and others. Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Working Paper No. 263 CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, 2019.

Free full text: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/101315/WP263.pdf?sequence=3

Abstract: Rice production is integral to agriculture and food security in Vietnam, but it also contributes greenhouse gas emissions. In 2010, paddy rice production emitted 44.61 million tons carbon dioxide equivalents (MtCO2e), 18% of total national GHG emissions. A variety of options to mitigate GHG emissions from paddy rice show promise and will contribute to implementing Vietnam’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and green growth strategies. One of the most promising options is alternate wetting and drying (AWD), a technique in which fields are allowed to dry out to a certain point before irrigation instances. This paper focuses on the Mekong River Delta region, which produces more than 50% of total rice production and 95% of rice exported from Vietnam. This study employs a literature review, a study of promising GHG mitigation options, and an analysis of cost and benefits of AWD to develop an investment plan for AWD in the Mekong River Delta. In our field survey, we found AWD contributed to increasing farmers’ net incomes primarily by decreasing production costs. The study proposes an investment plan with four outputs and 15 investment activities with a goal of practicing AWD on 900,000 hectares in the Mekong River Delta and mitigating 10.97 M.tCO2e. A co-benefit is additional net income for farmers of 8,540 billion VND (USD 371.36 million) per year compared to conventional rice cultivation. The budget is USD 721.78 million (81.32% for hard infrastructure, 18.19% for MRV operation, research, performance and planning), of which 36.9% is provided by the state, 29.92% from local provinces, 21.77% from international support and 11.42% from the private sector. Mobilization of financial resources from public and private sectors and the integration into government plans and programs are recommended.