1. Impact of Contract Farming on Farmers’ Income in the Food Value Chain: A Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Study in Vietnam

Viet Hoang. Agriculture, 11: 797, 2021.

Free full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0472/11/8/797

Abstract: This study empirically analyzes the influence of contract farming on income and farming difficulties in Vietnam by using the econometric models and theoretically identifying the affecting mechanism of contract farming on income, sustainability, and welfare by using the qualitative method. The empirical results show that contract farming insignificantly impacts farms’ income while it can facilitate farming activities and decrease difficulties. The factors of education—head, gender of head, type of crop, and technology may affect farmers’ income. The impacting mechanism of contract farming on income, sustainability, and welfare is theoretically proposed as follows: Contract farming initially impacts the intermediate factors such as cooperative, market access, knowledge and skill, product quality, technology, and support. These factors then affect capacity, linkage, quality, and certification which can enhance farmers’ competitiveness. In the long term, stronger competitiveness, higher price, increasing productivity, and lower cost may significantly improve income, sustainability, and welfare. In general, contract farming may have positive impacts on income, sustainability, and welfare in the medium term and long term. In the short term, the result is not significant due to the similar or lower price comparing with the spot market price, growing production cost, decreasing productivity, and weak contract performance. The findings may help policymakers decide how to expand contract farming and its benefits. Economic scholars can test and compare both quantitative and qualitative findings in other contexts.

2. Evaluation of pesticide residues in vegetables from Mekong, Delta, Vietnam using LC-MS/MS'

Ngoc-Van Thi Nguyen, Kim-Ngan Huynh Nguyen, Tuyet-Ngan Duong, et al. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 20, 2021.

Free full text: https://www.tjpr.org/admin/12389900798187/2021_20_7_24.pdf 

Abstract: Purpose: To assess the levels of pesticide residues in commonly used vegetables in Vietnam as a reference for future monitoring. --- Methods: A total of 180 samples of six different fresh vegetables including watercress, mustard green, choy sum, daikon, okra, and yam were analyzed from Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ten popular pesticides were evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after extraction with a multi-residue method (QuEChERS method). --- Results: The results were assessed according to the maximum residue limit (MRL) provided by Codex for each pesticide in each commodity. Pesticide residues above the MRL were detected in 107 samples (59 %) and 63 samples (47 %) contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 38.3% of the samples with two to five pesticides, and 0.6 % of samples were contaminated with more than five pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, eight pesticides were detected, of which abamectin, alpha-cypermethrin, acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos- ethyl, chlorantraniliprole, fenobucarb, fipronil, and trichlorfon exceeded their MRLs. Pesticide residues were detected above MRLs in samples of watercress (14 samples), mustard green (24 samples), choy sum (25 samples), daikon (26 samples), and yam (18 samples). Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, and fipronil were detected in most of the vegetable samples (100% and 89.44%, respectively). --- Conclusion: The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed vegetables in Vietnam. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.  

3. The impact of land fragmentation on food security in the North Central Coast, Vietnam

Tuyen Quang Tran, and Huong Van Vu. Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, n/a, 2021. Free full text https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/app5.330.

Abstract: While the effect of land fragmentation on farm efficiency and production diversification in Vietnam has been well established, no evidence exists for its effect on household food security. Using a unique dataset from household surveys in combination with micro-econometric models, the current study examines the impact of land fragmentation on food security in the poorest districts of Vietnam’s North Central Coast. Even after controlling for other factors in the models, we provide the first evidence that in Vietnam, ethnic minority households whose land holdings are fragmented are more likely to suffer from food insecurity. A higher likelihood of achieving food security is found for households whose members have better education and non-farm self-employment. The findings suggest that land policies that encourage land consolidation and improve the access of ethnic minorities to better education and non-farm self-employment would help them improve their food security. Such policies should be promoted in the study area. [Tuyen-etal-2021.pdf].

4. Reducing agriculture-led forest loss in Viet Nam: the role of land use constraints.

Maria Giulia Crespi, Ada Ignaciuk, Joanna Ilicic, et al. FAO, 2021.

Free full text:  http://www.fao.org/publications/card/en/c/CB3651EN

Abstract: This brief reviews some of the main land use contraints to reducing agriculture-led forest loss in Viet Nam. We find that agricultural land use constraints increase agriculture-driven pressure on forests. Farmers producing high-value crops have more incentives to deforest, and this increase when operating in areas with land use constrains. Removing land use constraints, repurposing agricultural support and reinforcing environmental regulations would improve agricultural productivity, sustainability and climate resilience, while reducing pressure on forests. The findings in this brief have been adapted from the FAO Agrifood Economics project “Guiding policies and investments to reduce agriculture-led deforestation in Viet Nam”. This brief reviews some of the main land use contraints to reducing agriculture-led forest loss in Viet Nam. We find that agricultural land use constraints increase agriculture-driven pressure on forests. Farmers producing high-value crops have more incentives to deforest, and this increase when operating in areas with land use constrains. Removing land use constraints, repurposing agricultural support and reinforcing environmental regulations would improve agricultural productivity, sustainability and climate resilience, while reducing pressure on forests. The findings in this brief have been adapted from the FAO Agrifood Economics project “Guiding policies and investments to reduce agriculture-led deforestation in Viet Nam”. 

5. Land accumulation: An option for improving technical and environmental efficiencies of rice production in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

Vo Hong Tu, Steven W. Kopp, Nguyen Thuy Trang, et al. Land Use Policy, 108: 105678, 2021.

Free full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837721004014

Abstract: The Vietnamese Land Law of 2013 imposed an upper threshold on how much land a farmer may possess. This is a policy that has been found to constrain agricultural development in other countries. Although this restriction of land accumulation is now under review among policy decision makers, there is limited empirical evidence to assess the impacts of landholding on land productivity. To evaluate the impacts of land accumulation on both the technical and environmental performances of farms, this study employed latent class stochastic frontier analysis using data gathered through face-to-face interviews rice farmers in two Mekong Delta rice-producing regions: An Giang province and Can Tho city. We then used multiple linear regression and the ordered logit model to estimate impacts of land accumulation on these performances. The results suggest that land accumulation is more common in An Giang than in Can Tho, yet rice farmers were unable to consolidate separate parcels of rice production land to take advantage of economies of scale. We also found that land accumulation was also positively associated with both technical and environmental efficiencies.

6. Antimicrobial Resistance Pilot Surveillance of Pigs and Chickens in Vietnam, 2017-2019

V. Tuat, P. T. Hue, N. T. P. Loan, et al. Front Vet Sci, 8: 618497, 2021.

Free full text: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34307512/

Abstract: Antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are a growing public health and economic threat in Vietnam. We conducted a pilot surveillance programme in five provinces of Vietnam, two in the south and three in the north, to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in rectal swab samples from pigs and fecal samples from chickens at slaughter points during three different points in time from 2017 to 2019. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using disk diffusion assay for 19 antimicrobial agents belonging to nine antimicrobial classes and Etest for colistin (polymyxin). Almost all E. coli (99%; 1029/1042) and NTS (96%; 208/216) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent; 94% (981/1042) of E. coli and 89% (193/216) of NTS isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Higher proportions of E. coli and NTS isolated from chickens were resistant to all antimicrobial classes than those isolates from pigs. There was a significantly higher proportion of MDR NTS isolates from the southern provinces of Ho Chi Minh City and Long An (p = 0.008). Although there were increasing trends of NTS in proportion of resistance to fluoroquinolone over the three surveillance rounds, there was a significant decreasing trend of NTS in proportion of resistance to polymyxin (p = 0.002). It is important to establish an annual AMR surveillance program for livestock in Vietnam to assess the impact of interventions, observe trends and drive decision making that ultimately contributes to reducing AMR public health threat.        

7. Mapping the pork value chain in Vietnam: a systematic review

Nguyen Thi Thuy, P. Dorny, P. Lebailly, et al. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 52: 2799-808, 2020.

Free full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32594355

Abstract: In Vietnam, pork is the most commonly consumed type of meat, and the demand is expected to rise even further. Nevertheless, food safety is a major concern, as the country bears a high burden of food-borne diseases, including these caused by pork products. Knowledge of the flows of pigs and pork from producers up to the consumers is important; however, up to now, a comprehensive overview is lacking. We addressed this by conducting a systematic review on the pork value chain (PVC) mapping for the country. Four international and three Vietnamese databases were searched for data on the pork value chain in Vietnam, and the results were reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. Data obtained from the retained records showed that 10 main PVC types are present in Vietnam, comprising of five main actors including: producers, middlemen, slaughter men, retailers and consumers. Among the identified chains, the one involving producers, slaughter men, retailers and consumers is the most common one, with up to 75% of pork following this route. In cities or export routes to other countries, middlemen and/or traders are important additional actors in the PVCs. The small scale of PVC linkages is prominent. The presence of middlemen, pig traders and pork traders is contributing to further distribution of pork products in geographical terms. Transactions between actors in the traditional PVCs in Vietnam are characterized by the absence of official contracts; therefore, the linkages in the chains are loose and the origin of pork is not traceable. More industrial forms of PVCs are slowly developing; however, the traditional PVCs are still prevailing in Vietnam. The weak linkages between actors and poor hygienic practices in these chains form a risk to pork safety. [Man-etal-2020.pdf].

 8. Poultry Production, Marketing, and Consumption in Vietnam: A Review of Literature

Mulugeta Y. Birhanu, Kumlachew Geremew, Wondmeneh Esatu, et al. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), 2021.

Free full text: https://dagris.info/acgg/Review-of-Chicken-Production-Marketing-and-Consumption-in-Vietnam.pdf

Abstract: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has an ACIAR-funded project called ‘Asian Chicken Genetic Gains (AsCGG): a platform for exploring, testing and delivering improved chickens for enhanced livelihood outcomes in South East Asia’. The project is implemented in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam. It aims to test and avail highproducing and farmer-preferred chicken genotypes to increase smallholder chicken production and productivity as a pathway out of poverty in the project countries. The project starts with a comprehensive literature review that aims to understand the current knowledge base, identify research and development gaps, and inform a baseline assessment. Thus, this document provides the literature review findings in Vietnam. The review presents an overview of poultry production and consumption, smallholder chicken production and productivity practices; marketing of poultry products; the contribution of smallholder poultry production to household nutrition; the economic contribution of smallholder poultry production; agricultural policy, and livestock research; and finally a conclusion and research opportunities.        

9. Floods, soil and food – Interactions between water management and rice production within An Giang province, Vietnam

John Livsey, Chau Thi Da, Anna Scaini, et al. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 320: 107589, 2021.

Free full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880921002930

Abstract: Rapid intensification of Vietnamese rice production has had a positive effect on the nation's food production and economy. However, the sustainability of intensive rice production is increasingly being questioned within Vietnam, particularly in major agricultural provinces such as An Giang. The construction of high dykes within this province, which allow for complete regulation of water onto rice fields, has enabled farmers to grow up to three rice crops per year. However, the profitability of producing three crops is rapidly decreasing as farmers increase their use of chemical fertilizer inputs and pesticides. Increased fertilizer inputs are partly used to replace natural flood-borne, nutrient-rich sediment inputs that have been inhibited by the dykes, but farmers believe that despite this, soil health within the dyke system is degrading. However, the effects of the dykes on soil properties have not been tested. Therefore, a sampling campaign was conducted to assess differences in soil properties caused by the construction of dykes. The results show that, under present fertilization practices, although dykes may inhibit flood-borne sediments, this does not lead to a systematic reduction in nutrients that typically limit rice growth within areas producing three crops per year. Concentrations of total nitrogen, available phosphorous, and both total and available potassium, and pH were higher in the surface layer of soils of three crop areas when compared to two crop areas. This suggests that yield declines may be caused by other factors related to the construction of dykes and the use of chemical inputs, and that care should be taken when attempting to maintain crop yields. Attempting to compensate for yield declines by increasing fertilizer inputs may ultimately have negative effects on yields.

Vũ Thị Nha (World Bank Group)

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