1. The 11 sins of seafood: Assessing a decade of food fraud reports in the global supply chain.

Lawrence, C. Elliott, W. Huisman, et al. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 21(4): 3746-69, 2022.

More information http://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12998.

Abstract: Due to complex, valuable, and often extremely opaque supply chains, seafood is a commodity that has experienced a high prevalence of food fraud throughout the entirety of its logistics network. Fraud detection and prevention require an in-depth understanding of food supply chains and their vulnerabilities and risks so that food business operators, regulators, and other stakeholders can implement practical countermeasures. An analysis of historical criminality within a sector, product, or country is an important component and has not yet been conducted for the seafood sector. This study examines reported seafood fraud incidents from the European Union's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, Decernis's Food Fraud Database, HorizonScan, and LexisNexis databases between January 01, 2010 and December 31, 2020. Illegal or unauthorized veterinary residues were found to be the most significant issue of concern, with most reports originating from farmed seafood in Vietnam, China, and India. For internationally traded goods, border inspections revealed a significant frequency of reports with fraudulent or insufficient documentation, indicating that deceptive practices are picked up at import or export but are occurring further down the supply chain. Practices such as species adulteration (excluding veterinary residues), species substitution, fishery substitution, catch method fraud, and illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing were less prevalent in the databases than evidenced in the scientific literature. The analysis demonstrates significant differences in outcomes depending on source and underlines a requirement for a standardized and rigorous dataset through which food fraud can be scrutinized to ensure enforcement, as well as industry and research resources are directed accurately. Practical Application: Levels of historic food fraud in a product, sector, supply chain node or geographic location provide an indication of historic criminality, the methods used and the location of reported frauds. This study provides an overview of historic levels of seafood fraud that can be used to inform seafood fraud prevention and mitigation activities by the food industry, regulators and other stakeholders.

2. Decision analysis of agro-climate service scaling – A case study in Dien Bien District, Vietnam.

Thi Thu Giang Luu, Cory Whitney, Lisa Biber-Freudenberger, et al. Climate Services, 27: 100313, 2022.

More Free full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405880722000310.

Abstract: Farmers’ agricultural practices in Vietnam are highly sensitive to weather, climate variability and climate change. The lack of timely and actionable climate-informed agricultural advice leads to significant input and yield losses, which can render investments in farming unprofitable. Development organizations in Vietnam have provided agro-climate services (ACS) to smallholder farmers on a limited scale. They advocate for the government to consider upscaling the provision of ACS, but a large-scale roll-out could strain the government’s financial and human resources. Evaluating the merits of climate services is challenging, because weather and climate risks, as well as the benefits that information services may provide, cannot be derived from robust existing datasets or predicted with certainty. CARE in Vietnam, a non-government organization, has provided ACS in two communes in Dien Bien District since 2015 and they expect to upscale their intervention. In this study, we used a decision analysis approach to develop conceptual models and probabilistic simulations to conduct an ex-ante cost-benefit analysis of four candidate interventions aiming to scale ACS in Dien Bien District, Vietnam. Our analysis was conducted in collaboration with CARE in Vietnam’s project staff, Dien Bien government staff and other experts. Our simulation results indicated a very high chance (98.35–99.81%) of the ACS interventions providing net benefits. With 90% confidence, investments in ACS would return benefits between 1.45 and 16.02 USD per 1 USD invested. Our framework offers a foundation for the design, implementation and evaluation of ACS. The cost-benefit analysis provides support to the government’s potential decision-making process and suggests replacing deterministic with probabilistic approaches when analyzing uncertain and complex decisions in development planning.

3. Tea farmers’ intention to participate in Livestream sales in Vietnam: The combination of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and barrier factors.

Nguyen Khanh Doanh, Long Do Dinh and Nguyen Ngoc Quynh. Journal of Rural Studies, 94: 408-17, 2022.

 More Free full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743016722001279.

Abstract: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, Livestream sales are becoming an emerging trend in developing countries. However, there is very little research on tea farmers' intention to participate in Livestream sales. This paper combines the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and barrier factors to examine the tea farmers' intention to participate in Livestream sales in four Northern midlands and mountainous provinces of Vietnam. Our interview data are from 398 tea farm households whose heads have been in business for at least three years and are between the ages of 26 and 53. Using general structural equation modeling (GSEM), we found that farmers' perceived ease of use and usefulness of Livestream sales motivate their intention to participate in this selling channel. However, regarding barrier factors, the lack of knowledge and experience, information, and professionals’ support, and normative barriers reduce tea farmers’ perception of ease of use and usefulness of Livestream sales. Based on the research findings, we propose several solutions to encourage tea farmers to participate in Livestream sales. We emphasize that solutions must be associated with the cultural and traditional standards of the local people, especially for ethnic minority farmers.

4. A Blockchain-Based Framework for Developing Traceability Applications towards Sustainable Agriculture in Vietnam'.

Duc-Hiep Nguyen, Nguyen Huynh-Tuong and Hoang-Anh Pham. Security and Communication Networks, 2022: 1834873, 2022.

Free full text: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/1834873

Abstract: Recently, many governments in the world have been focusing on building sustainable agriculture to improve the life quality of farmers and significantly increase their income. In Vietnam, however, the farmers still face the problems of “good harvest–low prices, and vice versa” and lack capital for scaling or transforming the production model. One of the main reasons for this phenomenon is that the price of agricultural products does not depend on farmers’ efforts but is based on the purchase price of the trader or the market price. Besides, the farmers also maintain farming habits based on regional culture or follow trendy and profitable agricultural products. Those production strategies make this type of product oversupplied, leading to a down in price shortly, so the farmers’ income will decrease. The above problems stem from the lack of information and communication tools between actors in the agricultural value chain, especially between cooperatives, farmers, and consumers. This paper presents a Blockchain-based framework for developing a traceability solution as an effective method of communication between actors in the agricultural value chain toward a sustainable agricultural model. The proposed approach helps to fully convey the production and distribution of agricultural products and the ability to verify traceability information, thereby helping to increase prices and protect the brand of agricultural products.

5. Assessment of pesticide safety knowledge and practices in Vietnam: A cross-sectional study of smallholder farmers in the Mekong Delta.

Galli, M. S. Winkler, T. Doanthu, et al. J Occup Environ Hyg: 1-15, 2022.

More information http://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2022.2100403

Abstract: Over the past three decades, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta has experienced a significant increase in agricultural productivity, partly achieved through increased agrochemical use. To abate negative effects on human and environmental health, several national programs were launched to enhance safer pesticide use. This study aimed to assess the patterns and relationships of official sustainable agriculture educational programs, pesticide safety knowledge, and practices of smallholder farmers in the Mekong Delta. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 400 smallholder farmers from three communes in Thoi Lai district (Can Tho province) from March to May 2020. Twenty-four questions on pesticide safety knowledge and practices were used to identify traits using latent class analysis. Adjusted generalized linear regression was used to assess determinants of pesticide safety knowledge and estimate associations of pesticide safety knowledge with pesticide practices. 96.2% of participants have used at least one WHO class II pesticide during the past year while the use of specific personal protective equipment was limited mainly due to unavailability (37.0%) or discomfort (83.0%). High education (Odds Ratio (OR), 95% Confidence Interval; 3.84, 1.70-9.45), exposure to official educational programs (1.87, 1.13-3.12), peer-to-peer knowledge exchange (3.58, 2.18-6.00), and learning from governmental extension services (2.31, 1.14-4.98) were positively associated with increased pesticide safety knowledge. Compared to poor practices, pesticide safety knowledge was increasingly positively associated with intermediate (1.65, 1.02-2.66) and good pesticide practices (8.96, 2.58-31.12). These findings highlight the importance of school education and educational programs, access to PPE, and addressing discomforts of PPE to improve the protection of farmers from pesticide exposures. Simultaneously, pesticide market authorization processes should be reconsidered to promote the authorization of less toxic products. Further in-depth studies on the nature of pesticides used, nonuse of personal protective equipment, and effectiveness of educational programs will further define leverage points for safer pesticide use.

6. Aquaculture Farmers' Economic Risks Due to Climate Change: Evidence from Vietnam.

Thanh Viet Nguyen, Tuyen Tran and Dewan Ahsan. European Journal of Business Science and Technology, 8(1): 42-53, 2022.

Free full text: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:men:journl:v:8:y:2022:i:1:p:42-53.

Abstract: Climate change poses a serious threat for aquacultural productivity. Employing the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model, this research aims to evaluate the economic impact of climate change on aquaculture in Vietnam, drawing on time series data from 1981 to 2013 and including aquaculture yield, acreage, investment, labor, temperature, rainfall, and damage costs to aquaculture caused by natural disasters. The results show that aquaculture yield depends not only on the current value of inputs, but also on their lag values and the yield itself. The results also show that rainfall, storm surges and tropical cyclones negatively affect aquaculture production. After any natural disaster, it takes at least two years to recover from the repercussions for productivity and return to the previous norm. To reduce the vulnerability of aquacultural communities, this study suggests that the state could establish a climate resilience fund specifically for small and medium-scale aquaculture farmers, providing special financial support for those affected by natural disasters.

7. Coffee farmer preferences for sustainable agricultural practices: Findings from discrete choice experiments in Vietnam'.

G. Pham, S. H. Chuah and S. Feeny. J Environ Manage, 318: 115627, 2022a.

More information http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115627

Abstract: Despite the proven benefits of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs), adoption rates among farmers are still low, especially in developing countries. This paper seeks to assist policymakers devise approaches to encourage adoption by identifying the attributes of SAPs that can motivate Vietnamese coffee farmers to adopt them in production. Vietnam is the world's second largest coffee producer and the sector supports the livelihoods of over half a million people in the country. We conduct two different types of discrete choice experiments with over 300 Vietnamese coffee farmers to identify their SAP preferences. We analyse the data using cluster analysis and generalised multinomial logit models. The results are consistent across our different approaches. They show that these farmers have the strongest preferences for SAPs that can provide higher profits, lower risks (of output loss) and higher environmental benefits. These attributes received mean part-worth utilities of 0.251, 0.250 and 0.239 respectively. Attributes capturing the increase in daily operating efforts and time required to set up such practices are less important considerations. Further, the farmers are willing to pay on average between 26 and 32 million VND per hectare per year for a one level reduction in the risk of output loss and earn 15 million VND per hectare per year less in profits to achieve a one level increase in environmental benefits.

8.'Assessment of technical, economic, and allocative efficiencies of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam'.

Duong The Duy, Nguyen Hong Nga, Håkan Berg, et al. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, n/a(n/a), 2022.

Free full text https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jwas.12915

Abstract: This study applied a stochastic frontier production model to analyze the technical (TE), allocative (AE), and economic (EE) efficiencies of intensive shrimp farming households, and to identify socioeconomic and shrimp farm-specific factors (farm size, labor, feed, seed, chemicals/medicine) that influence the TE, AE, and EE of shrimp production in the Ca Mau, Ben Tre, Bac Lieu, and Tra Vinh provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The AE was calculated based on TE and EE. The stochastic frontier production and cost function model were used to evaluate the EE and TE at the shrimp farming household level. The results showed that the mean TE, AE, and EE of shrimp farming systems were 75%, 68.5%, and 61.4%, respectively. Age, gender, education, experience, cooperatives, and technical training significantly impacted the efficiency of shrimp production. The results suggest that shrimp farmers can improve shrimp productivity and EE by decreasing feed cost (FEE) and medicine/chemical cost (MED) of farm inputs. The study showed that shrimp farmers who participated in training activities, cooperatives, or management boards of aquaculture associations were more technically efficient than other farmers. The findings of this study provide essential information about the TE, AE, and EE of shrimp production, which can help local policy makers and shrimp farmers in the region to make better decisions on how to improve the EE and sustainability of shrimp production in the future. There is a need for recommendations on how to improve policies, technical guidance, and training courses on feed management and feeding practices, water quality, and disease management, to help shrimp farmers in the coastal provinces of the Mekong Delta to improve their shrimp production efficiencies in the future.

9.'Understanding small-scale Fishers' perceptions on climate shocks and their impacts on local fisheries livelihoods: Insights from the Central Coast, Vietnam'.

Ha Dung Hoang, Salim Momtaz and Maria Schreider. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 79: 103152, 2022.

Free full text https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420922003715.

Abstract: This research explores and assesses the different dimensions of the fishers’ perception of climate shocks in the Tam Giang – Cau Hai lagoon, Central Coast of Vietnam. It clarifies the impact of each type of shock on fishery livelihoods through the lens of local fishers. The data were gathered from five fishing villages in two coastal communes of Loc Binh and Huong Phong, Thua Thien Hue province. These included a survey (n = 181 households), six group discussions, and several in-depth interviews with the head of fisheries associations, commune officers, policymakers, researchers, and practitioners. The results show that most fishers from study sites observed that the climate and shocks have been changing in the last decades. Most respondents perceived strange changes in the flood, fluctuation of temperatures and rainfall, stronger storms, frequent droughts, and unpredictable freshening of the lagoon water. All of these changes severely impacted small-scale fisheries in research sites. Finally, this research finds that the WAI is useful for investigating perception among local fishers and their awareness about shocks impacting local fishery livelihoods. Both researchers and policymakers should use WAI to propose more effective policies on climate shock adaptation.

10. Opportunities and challenges for mangrove restoration in the Mekong Delta: Status, policies and stakeholder outlook.

Pham Thu Thuy, Vien Ngoc Nam, Vo Quoc Tuan, et al. CIFOR Occasional Paper 233, 2022.

Free full text:  https://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-233.pdf.

Abstract: The Mekong Delta is home to the largest mangrove area in Vietnam and is also highly exposed to climate change and coastal squeeze. Vietnam’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2022), as well as forestry and sectoral policies, positions mangrove restoration as a national priority for mitigating climate change and achieving sustainable coastal development. While policymakers have established national and provincial targets for mangrove restoration, and a significant number of foreign and national projects are already underway, questions remain over where restoration should take place. Mangrove restoration is a complex undertaking that requires political, social, economic and biophysical enabling conditions. It should also be conducted on the basis of local knowledge and expertise, and involve participatory decision-making processes. Based on a literature and policy review, spatial analysis, participatory mapping and stakeholder consultations, this paper identifies potential sites for mangrove restoration; looks at policy planning, possibilities for natural regeneration, and stakeholder perceptions; and discusses opportunities and challenges for mangrove restoration in the Mekong Delta.

11. A cost-benefit analysis of Vietnam's 2006-2010 foot-and-mouth disease control program.

  1. Do, H. T. Nguyen, P. Van Ha, et al. Prev Vet Med, 206: 105703, 2022.

More information http://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2022.105703.

Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is arguably the most damaging animal disease, affecting three-quarters of the global livestock population. This paper provides a cost-benefit analysis of the first five-year program that used vaccination to contain and control FMD in an endemic country, Vietnam. Our spatial and dynamic model to simulate FMD outbreaks fully considered the distance among livestock premises, their herd sizes, and composition, all of which significantly affect FMD transmission. Our program benefit was consistently estimated due to the Law of Large Number and the design of pairing the control and treatment scenarios which allowed capturing the true benefit of each outbreak realization. The data used to monetize the program benefit were largely drawn from Vietnam's context and statistics, thus obviating the need to make many potentially undue assumptions. Meanwhile, the program costs were actual spending and allocated budget. We found that the vaccination program is highly cost-effective for Vietnam, yielding a net present value of US$136 million (in 2006 prices) over five years and a benefit-cost ratio of 5.7. Our results were robust to different assumptions about the vaccine effectiveness of the livestock unit.

12. Temporal and Spatial Evolution of the African Swine Fever Epidemic in Vietnam

Shao, R. Li, Y. Han, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 19(13), 2022.

More information http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138001.

Abstract: African swine fever (ASF) is a severe infectious disease affecting domestic and wild suids. Spatiotemporal dynamics analysis of the ASF is crucial to understanding its transmission. The ASF broke out in Vietnam in February 2019. The research on the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of ASF in Vietnam is lacking. Spatiotemporal statistical methods, including direction analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and spatiotemporal scan statistics were used to reveal the dynamics of the spatial diffusion direction and spatiotemporal aggregation characteristics of ASF in Vietnam. According to the cessation of the epidemic, it was divided into three phases: February to August 2019 (phase 1), April to December 2020 (phase 2), and January 2021 to March 2022 (phase 3). The ASF showed a significant spread trend from north to south in phase 1. The occurrence rate of the ASF aggregated spatially in phase 1 and became random in phases 2 and 3. The high-high ASF clusters (the province was a high cluster and both it and its neighbors had a high ASF occurrence rate) were concentrated in the north in phases 1 and 2. Four spatiotemporal high-risk ASF clusters were identified with a mean radius of 121.88 km. In general, there were significant concentrated outbreak areas and directional spread in the early stage and small-scale, high-frequency, and randomly scattered outbreaks in the later stage. The findings could contribute to a deeper understanding of the spatiotemporal spread of the ASF in Vietnam.

13. Climate change impacts on rice-based livelihood vulnerability in the lower Vietnamese Mekong Delta: Empirical evidence from Can Tho City and Tra Vinh Province.

Dung Duc Tran, Edward Park, Huynh Thi Ngoc Tuoi, et al. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 28: 102834, 2022.

Free full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352186422002905.

Abstract: This paper assesses the livelihood vulnerability and adaptive capacity of rice-based farmers in the lower Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) under the impact of climate change and environmental pressures. We interviewed 600 rice farmers in 19 communes spanning six districts of Can Tho City (middle delta) and Tra Vinh Province (coastal delta). For our analyses, we employed the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) framework and the LVI approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (LVI–IPCC). Results indicate that both study areas are vulnerable to climate change and environmental pressures, but the potential threat is greater in the coastal province. Farmers there have responded to climate change and environmental pressures by increasing production inputs, scaling up production areas and transforming cropping patterns, though with little investment in new equipment. Yet, their livelihoods from rice cultivation, and agricultural production in general, remain unsustainable under climate change, which is a matter of concern. This study provides empirical evidence of the vulnerability factors that most undermine farmers’ adaptive capacity and livelihood sustainability in the study areas. This will help local authorities in providing timely support to agricultural production management.